INCLASS Inventory

INCLASS assesses student attitudes and behaviors related to academic learning. It is a self-assessment instrument designed to assess proficiency in seven competencies which affect student performance in the classroom: studying, test-taking, homework, collaborative learning, and the like. INCLASS is a diagnostic and prescriptive instrument. It provides information to the student being assessed while also giving teachers, counselors, and others a framework within which they can develop instructional and other interventions for students likely to have behavior patterns that might interfere with classroom success.

INCLASS can be used as:

  • A diagnostic measure to identify areas in which students could benefit most from educational interventions;
  • A basis for creating individual plans for bolstering weaknesses and building on strengths, and;
  • A counseling tool for those involved in helping students become successful in educational settings.

INCLASS is a statistically valid and reliable assessment, independently verified by Public Policy Associates. It assesses seven areas of academic style and skills. Most of them are changeable. INCLASS results will help students find which behaviors and habits they might want to keep and others they might want to change.


The INCLASS was developed by Curtis Miles, Ed.D., Piedmont Technical College, and Phyllis Grummon, Ph.D., Michigan State University

Scales of INCLASS

  • Life-Long Learning (LRNG)
    The pace of change in information and skills dictates that everyone be willing and able to learn throughout their lifetime. Some studies predict that people will change careers up to five times during their working lives. Even those who stay in an occupational area will be confronted with rapidly changing knowledge and skill demands. In order to be successful, students must have the desire and the ability to continue to learn, whether from formal schooling or on their own. Employers identify the ability to learn as a key to success on a first job and to advancement to higher-level work.

    Students’ scores on this scale indicate an interest in engaging in learning in a variety of settings. Students who score low on this scale have a reluctance to look for learning opportunities and to take advantage of them when they are presented. Students may need help in identifying the many places and ways in which they can learn-ones that go beyond the traditional educational setting. Students who are not motivated to continue learning may find their skills obsolete sooner than they wish.
  • A Sense of Quality (QUAL)
    A focus on the quality of one's work is essential for successful performance at school and work. Students need to take pride in their work and to invest the energy and time needed to produce quality work. Appropriate attention to details is a key aspect of a student's orientation to quality, as is the desire to go beyond stated requirements to enhance a product. Without a desire to produce quality work, the completion of tasks is less meaningful.

    Students who score low on this scale need help in understanding how exceeding expectations can help them succeed in everything they do. Students may need guidance in learning how to judge what is “just enough ” versus "more than expected" and why doing more is beneficial. Students who score low are also likely to need help in focusing in on details and paying attention to the quality with which work is done, rather than simply doing work.
  • Taking Responsibility (RESP)
    In order to be successful at school and work, students must be willing to take personal responsibility for their assigned tasks. Students also need to be able to identify the range of actions that will lead to success and to make sure that they are done satisfactorily. If students do not take personal responsibility for task completion, they are unlikely to be successful in life, regardless of their natural abilities or talents.

    Students’ scores on this scale measure their desire to complete tasks they begin and to ensure that all aspects of a task are identified and done well. Students who score low on this measure need to work on learning strategies for identifying the components of a task and setting goals for task completion. Students who consistently neglect their responsibilities may need counseling on the long-term consequences of such behavior, particularly on their likelihood of succeeding in a job.
  • Persisting (PERS)
    The desire to stay with a task until it is completed satisfactorily is an essential quality for success in school, work, and life. Persisting involves the expenditure of time and effort to ensure that what is started is finished. Students who are able to persist until they master information or skills are at a definite advantage in school and work. Students must also be able to recognize when enough has been done and to not spend more time than is necessary on a task.

    Students who score either low or very high on this scale may have trouble in this area. Students who score low have trouble sticking with a task or learning assignments long enough to see it to its satisfactory completion. They may give up too soon to really benefit from instruction. Students who score too high may be seen as stubborn and unwilling to compromise when such compromise is needed because of limited resources or available time.
  • Working in Teams (TEAM)
    One of the skills that employers consistently rank as most important to success in a career is the ability to work in teams. Teams are used to make products or deliver services, to solve problems, and to manage the work environment. Employees at all levels of an organization must be able to work with others to accomplish tasks and solve problems. Teamwork involves attention to both the goals of the group and to the social processes used to accomplish those goals. Students need to be skilled in both the task and the process of the teamwork.

    Students’ scores on this scale measure the degree to which they feel comfortable working in teams and are able to use the skills associated with effective teamwork. Students who score low on this scale may need more experience in working in teams to accomplish a task. They need to learn the qualities of an effective team member, including taking responsibility for individual assignments and for deciding how the team should accomplish its goal. Communication is also a critical factor in successful teamwork.
  • Problem Solving (PROB)
    Organizations must be concerned with the ability of employees to actively participate in solving its problems. Employees need to be able to recognize problems and to use systematic methods for identifying the components of a problem and developing solutions to it. Whether working alone or with others, organizations rely on employees to help them improve by permanently solving a range of problems.

    Students' scores on this scale indicate their interest and skill at using systematic-problem solving methods when approaching complex problems. Students who score low need help in understanding how to approach problems in a step-by-step fashion. Experience in using the scientific method or other systematic problem-solving approaches should help them increase their skills in this area.
  • Adapting to Change (CHNG)
    Organizations are experiencing change at a rapid rate. Employees who can be flexible and adapt to change are more likely to be retained by an organization and to be successful in it. When people and organizations undergo frequent changes, the ability to thrive in ambiguous environments can help an employee to feel less stress. A student's sense that change is not threatening and that it can be managed for positive outcomes is an important component of success in the workplace.

    Students’ scores on this scale indicate their level of comfort with frequent or major changes in their environment. Students who score low are less likely to seek out new experiences or to adjust to changes they experience. Students with low tolerance for change may have trouble working in many environments where change is the norm. They need counseling to help them identify ways in which they can increase their ability to adapt to change.